queen nefertari tomb

These pieces were then reused by the new occupants of the tomb of Tuya for internal functions. Her burial had been looted in antiquity, so no trace of the original entrance had been preserved. Alberto Siliotti, Kemet: temples, people, gods,1994, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=QV66&oldid=998952837, Buildings and structures completed in the 13th century BC, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 20:10. QV66 is the tomb of Nefertari, the Great Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. She was the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II the Great, one of the best known of the Egyptian queens, next to Cleopatra, Nefertiti and Hatshepsut. [7] Upon completion of the restoration work, Egyptian authorities decided to severely restrict public access to the tomb in order to preserve the delicate paintings found within. These texts are produced in longitudinal and transverse bands, imitating a mummy fastenings. Her tomb is the most beautiful found in the Valley of the Queens. The walls contain no images taken from her daily life, but consist of a journey through the underworld, to be united eternally with Osiris. The tomb of Queen Nefertiti is the most beautiful tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Even here it was not earthquakes but salt which caused the problem. A whole entire wall was dedicated to show the Queen at play, demonstrating the importance of the game of Senet. [1][2][3][4][5], A flight of steps cut out of the rock gives access to the antechamber, which is decorated with paintings based on Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead. It is built on two levels: three chambers are located at the upper level and the main burial chamber and its three annexes reached via the secondary stairway. Tomb number: QV66 These were purchased by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. [6] According to religious doctrines of the time, it was in this chamber, which the ancient Egyptians called the "golden hall" that the regeneration of the deceased took place. The seepage of water through the rock had created crystals, which had caused the plaster to crack and the paint to flake. Some paintings were full of lines and color of red, blue, yellow, and green that portrayed exquisite directions to navigating through the afterlife to paradise. This deviation was almost certainly due to the fact that the architect had to take account some now unknown obstacle. It is reasonable to presume that these items were part of the queen's burial equipment. To this day, the Getty Conservation Institute regularly monitors the tomb. As usual with royal sarcophaguses of the 18th Dynasty, it combined both images and texts. Nefertari, as befitted her status as Rameses II’s Great Wife was entombed in one of Egypt’s most spectacular tombs in the monumental Valley of the Queens. A flight of steps cut out of the rock gives access to the antechamber, which is decorated with paintings based on Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead. The work would have been progressive, each skill following the one before; none waiting for the whole tomb to be completed before starting. She was the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II the Great, one of the best known of the Egyptian queens, next to … The tomb was the focus of major restoration work done by the Getty foundation. Now, everything had been looted except for two thirds of the 5,200 square feet of wall paintings. (Based on the translation by Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri). When discovered, Nefertari's tomb was found to have been badly damaged, plundered and left open to the elements of nature and mankind.Among the remains found by Schiaparelli were several scarabs, pieces from the queens pink granite sarcophagus lid and fragments from a guilded coffin lid. Finally, the actual painters would use a rich palette of colours to finally bring the walls to life. The burial chamber has a solid bench on all of its sides, being interrupted by the accesses to the three antechambers and a small niche, cut into the middle of the west side bench. Although she had at least four sons and two daughters, none of these succeeded to the throne. A new study indicates they belonged to Queen Nefertari. When Queen Nefertari died some 3,000 years ago, she was buried in an elaborate tomb adorned with beautiful, intricate wall paintings. Tomb of King Tutankhamun (Tut) The exceptions being: under the bench of the antechamber and burial chamber; although a less deep version does exist above the benches of the burial chamber. The Tomb of Queen Nefertari is located in the Valley of the Queens in Luxor west bank. As of November 2019, holders of a 1400 EGP entry ticket or a premium Luxor pass can visit this tomb. Ramses II constructed the most beautiful and largest tomb in the Valley of The Queens , the tomb is decorated in majestic colors and well-preserved wall paintings of her daily life, poetry, and the passage from the book of the dead. Later, in February 1988, a full restoration started, preceded by a various studies carried out by an international team of scientists.It was found that the main culprit for the damage was not ancient tomb robbers, but nature itself. Even the limited number of tourists have an effect on the surface of the paintings. On the north wall of the antechamber is the stairway that goes down to the burial chamber. The only body parts were of legs; see below. Nefertari with the beloved wife of King Ramses II and in expression of his love he built her the most splendid tomb of all the Queens in the Valley of Queens. See more ideas about queen nefertari, ancient egypt, egyptian history. Discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in 1904, the tomb of Nefertari (QV66) is situated at the bottom of the north side of the main wadi in the Valley of the Queens. to 1213 B.C. The heir to the throne of Ramesses II was Prince Merneptah, his 13th son by another wife, Isetnofret. ), her full name was Nefertari Merytmut, meaning "Beautiful Companion, Beloved of Mut". Queen Nefertari was the chief wife of Ramesses II. Queen Nefertari Tomb She passed away in 1256 B.C at an age of around 40 and 50 years old . These are ((nbt) and ((Hnwt). Merneptah, the 13th son (by Isotnofret) became pharaoh. No form of photography was allowed. The stone masons (the excavators) would have still been working progressively in the many chambers as their work was continued by the plasterers laying at least two layers, to render the poor quality limestone fit for decoration. These were not painted to match the missing colour, but were painted in "trattegio" (straight lines) to produce an almost identical match of colour; water based paint was used, for easy removal if at some future date it found to be inappropriate. Her sarcophagus once sat in the middle of the chamber, but tomb raiders stole all of the buried treasure, along with the sarcophagus and Queen Nefertari’s mummy. It opened again in 2016, but at a very restricted level. The fantastic tomb of Nefertari was known as Sistine Chapel in ancient Egypt. ^4 This can be alluded because of a painting in the tomb of Nefertari coming before the god of writing and literacy to proclaim her title as a scribe. Nefertari is one of the most celebrated queens of ancient Egypt alongside Hatshepsut, Nefertiti and Cleopatra. One of the most well-known examples is the resting place carved out of the rock for Queen Nefertari (1290–1224 BCE). Even since the time of Schiaperelli's photography of the tomb, the effect of the destruction has been progressive, as best seen in a imgView('nfrtri66_comparison', 'comparison') of the condition after the recent conservation and a black and white photo taken by Schiaparelli.Earlier attempts at conservation was done by pasting large strips of paper or thick gauze over the cracks. Consequently, each queen's tomb reflected the desired—and autonomous—afterlife experience of the royal female tomb owner.Furthermore, enhancements made to Ramesside royal women's tombs were part of an overarching Ramesside aggrandizement of all royal tombs. She married Ramesses at age of thirteen, who was himself only fifteen, before he became pharaoh. According to Tripadvisor travelers, these are the best ways to experience Tomb of Queen Nefertari: Private Nefertari and King Tut's Tombs, Valley of the Kings, Hatshepsut Temple (From $260.00) Discover Nefertari Valley of the Kings Hatshepsut Karnak (From $87.18) The tomb of the Pharaonic Queen Nefertari is considered one of the most beautiful tombs in terms of Pharaonic drawings and engravings, and Queen Nefertari is the wife of King Ramses II and you will find statues of the queen next to the king in the temple of Abu Simbel. This probably held a canopic chest containing the Nefertari's embalmed viscera. The ceilings throughout are painted deep blue and decorated with yellow stars. The remains of the pink granite lid found by Schiaparelli are in the Turin museum.The sarcophagus was oblong. The decorations in her tomb are considered some of the most beautiful of the entire necropolis. Next, the designs would be produced in outline and other craftsmen would then carve the sketch in relief. Had Nefertari's, as with so many others, been removed and re-used for another deceased in the Third Intermediate Period?A disturbing fact was recorded by Christian Leblanc: when he searched the tomb of queen Tuya, the mother of Ramesses II, he recovered fragments of a pink granite sarcophagus with the name of… Nefertari !Leblanc proposes that these fragments came from the main body of the queen's sarcophagus, which had been dragged outside of her tomb, then smashed. The east wall of the antechamber is interrupted by a large opening flanked by representation of Osiris at left and Anubis at right; this in turn leads to the side chamber, decorated with offering scenes, preceded by a vestibule in which the paintings portray Nefertari being presented to the gods who welcome her. She was the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II the Great, one of the best known of the Egyptian queens, next to Cleopatra, Nefertiti and Hatshepsut. Book your tickets online for Tomb of Queen Nefertari, Luxor: See 329 reviews, articles, and 203 photos of Tomb of Queen Nefertari, ranked No.3 on Tripadvisor among 77 attractions in Luxor. Living in the XIX th. Sadly, ancient tomb robbers thoroughly looted her tomb and her mummy was largely destroyed. The Kimbell Art Museum presents an in-depth exhibition about Queen Nefertari, beloved wife of Pharaoh Ramesses II. This astronomical ceiling represents the heavens and is painted in dark blue, with a myriad of golden five-pointed stars. ), her full name was Nefertari Merytmut, meaning "Beautiful Companion, Beloved of Mut". Parts of the mummy's knees were found in the burial chamber, and were taken to the Egyptian Museum in Turin by Schiaparelli, where they are still kept today. Dynasty (c. 1295-1255 B.C. Last, but not least, were a pair of Nefertari's sandals, which somehow escaped the clutches of looters. • "King's great wife": this, and the following three titles, identifies Nefertari as pre-eminent among the eight known wives of Ramesses II.• "King's great wife, his beloved", • "Wife of the strong bull", • "God's wife", • "Mother of the king", this confirms that one of Nefertari's sons had been chosen to succeed Ramesses.• "Hereditary noblewoman", this indicates that Nefertari came from noble stock.• "Great of praise", • "Mistress of charm, sweetness and love", • "Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt": this, and the next two variants, indicates that Nefertari exercised some role in state affairs.• "Mistress of the two lands", • "Mistress of all lands", • "Pleasant in the twin plumes": this refers to her preferred twin-plumed headdress, the same as the one worn by the god Amun.• "For whom the sun shines": a unique inscription from the façade of her Temple at Abu Simbel.• "Great of favours": possibly indicating some judicial role which she held. The paintings are masterworks of their type, incredibly beautiful and leaving us a wealth of information on the Egyptian beliefs about Judgement Day and their concept of the Afterlife. Her tomb is one of the largest and most resplendent tombs in the Vallery of Queens, which is evidence of how much … Some items of Nefertari's jewelry appeared on the antiquities market in Luxor, in 1904. Although he married eight times in his life, Nefertari was his true beloved. The word mistress does not, of course, have its more modern meaning of "illicit lover". Your mother Nut will is pleased to lead you towards the horizon, you are justified by the great god". About the project the tomb of Nefertari Dear connoisseurs and experts of Ancient Egyptian art and culture. Regarding the mummy: Schiaparelli only found part of the two knees in the funeral chamber, among shreds of material coming from the mummification. Ramesses II also constructed for her a temple at imgView('abou_simbel_tb', 'Abu Simbel'), next to his own colossal monument. This has spaces between supports, all of which were decorated. Princess Henuttawy.There could be others. Ramesside queens' tombs represent, for the first time, a separate, parallel "queenly" counterpart to kings' tombs in terms of both form and function. Nefertari Meritmut, whose name means ‘beautiful companion' was the first of the Great Royal Wives of Ramesses the Great and one of the best known Egyptian queens, next to Hatshepsut, Cleopatra, and Nefertiti. The east wall of the antechamber is interrupted by a large opening flanked by representation of Osiris at left and Anubisat right; this in turn leads to the side chamber, decorated with offering scenes, preceded by a vestibule in which the painting… Today, due to conservation concerns, the tomb… She was the Great Royal Wife, the favorite of pharaoh Ramesses II (reigned from 1279 to 1213 B.C. Perhaps to the ancient Egyptians they had a specific difference. Admission was severely restricted, limiting the group size and number of daily visitors in order to try to preserve the fragile micro climatic. Nefertari lived an elegant life on earth, and she is also promised an elegant afterlife. Ramses II honored his … The details of the ceremonies concerning the afterlife also tell us much about the duties and roles of many major and minor gods during the reign of the 19th Dynasty in the New Kingdom. Queen Nefertari was buried in QV66 in the Valley of the Queens. ), her full name was Nefertari Merytmut, meaning “Beautiful Companion, Beloved of Mut”. In the Valley of the Queens, Nefertari's tomb once held the mummified body and representative symbolisms of her, like what most Egyptian tombs consisted of. Nefertari, which means "beautiful companion", was Ramesses II's favorite wife; he went out of his way to make this obvious, referring to her as "the one for whom the sun shines" in his writings, built the Temple of Hathor to idolize her as a deity, and commissioned portraiture wall paintings. The final layer being one containing a mixture of vegetable gums to make the colours adhere better. The vast array of paintings inside the tomb of Nefertari, the first of the Great Royal Wives of Ramesses the Great, look as if they were painted just days ago. when she was 40 to 50 years old, and her husband had ruled for some 25 years. After the discovery of the tomb, scientists found deterioration in many paintings caused by water damage, bacterial growth, salt formation, and recently, the humidity of visitors' breath. In January 2003 it was once again closed to the public. The small temple of Abu Simbel was dedicated to Queen Nefertari and … Book your tickets online for Tomb of Queen Nefertari, Luxor: See 329 reviews, articles, and 203 photos of Tomb of Queen Nefertari, ranked No.3 on Tripadvisor among 77 attractions in Luxor. The burial chamber is divided into three across its width, with the central section being 0.6m lower than the front and rear levels. As mention previously, was what was either a imgView('nfrtri66_finds_6', 'pommel') of a cane or a knob from a chest, which included a cartouche of the Pharaoh Ay. In 1904, archeologist Ernesto Schiaparelli discovered Queen Nefertari's tomb in the Valley of Queens as well as the nearby workmen's village of Deir el-Medina. This decorative pictogram of the walls in the burial chamber drew inspirations from chapters 144 and 146 of the Book of the Dead: in the left half of the chamber, there are passages from chapter 144 concerning the gates and doors of the kingdom of Osiris, their guardians, and the magic formulas that had to be uttered by the deceased in order to go past the doors.[6]. These had a detrimental affect and had to be carefully removed, and the plaster and paint secured, using more modern techniques, before cleaning and final conservation work could be completed.The aim of the project was to stabilise and clean the tomb, not to restore it to is original state. Nefertari died in 1246, at age 56, of unknown cause and was buried in the Valley of the Queens near Thebes. This phenomenon was propelled by an interlocking set of ideological, historical, and religious circumstances specific to the Ramesside period, but with roots in the late 18th Dynasty: a mythologization and elevation of the queenly role, the reinstatement of the "god's wife" title for women, the Ramesside dynasty's need to establish its own political legitimacy in the wake of a post-Amarna succession crisis, and a complex Ramesside reaction to the religious and ideological changes wrought by Akhenaten during the Amarna period. Tomb KV5, the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II, is an example of this practice. Prince Meriatum, high priest of Heliopolis. [3] In 2006, the tomb was restricted to visitors once again, except for private tours of a maximum of 20 people purchasing a license for 3000 USD. Love poetry has been found inside her tomb that was written by Ramsses II. This was a very sad end for "the most beautiful of all". In one of the burial chamber wall recesses was found the imgView('nfrtri66_finds_5', 'wooden djed-pillar') from a magic brick. The paintings are found on almost every available surface in the tomb, including thousands of stars painted on the ceiling of the burial chamber on a blue background to represent the sky. More details about the sarcophagus follow below. Entered via an flight of eighteen steps in a roughly northern direction, the tomb consists of seven chambers and a secondary flight of steps. By contemporary standards, the real value of the paintings found within the tomb is that they are the best preserved and most detailed source of the ancient Egyptian’s journey towards the afterlife. The cosmography of Ramesside royal women's tombs was of such a high order of complexity that, like contemporary kings' tombs, each served as a microcosmic representation of the deceased's personal netherworld and evoked the processes of re-conception, renewal, and rebirth that the deceased was imagined to have experienced in the afterlife. Queen Nefertari: “The One for Whom the Sun Shines” Nefertari is one of the most celebrated queens of ancient Egypt alongside Hatshepsut, Nefertiti and Cleopatra. Scholars found love poetry written by the king for his dead queen in Nefertari’s tomb. [6] This latter is a vast quadrangular room covering a surface area about 90 square meters, the astronomical ceiling of which is supported by four pillars entirely covered with decoration. Here the queen emerges from the eastern horizon reborn in the likeness of a solar disc (imgView('nfrtri66_d1_soffit', 'view d1-soffit')), to immortalise forever her victory over the world of darkness. The journey then continues outwards, to the doorway at the foot of the stairs leading to the upper world. Unfortunately by the time that Schiaparelli rediscovered Nefertari’s tomb it had already been found by tomb raiders, who had stolen all the treasure buried with the Queen, including her sarcophagus and mummy. Five years later, Egypt's Prime Minister, Hisham Zazao, declared the tomb to be reopened to visitors, 150 visitors at a time. The local limestone contains salt, as did the mud from the Nile, used to make the plaster. Nefertari is believed to have died around 1250 B.C. The tombs on either side (QV68 and QV80) do not appear close enough to have been this cause.The antechamber has a bench structure on two of the sides (west and north) onto which offerings were placed. Gods mentioned on the tomb walls include Isis, Osiris, Anubis, Hathor, Neith, Serket, Ma'at, Wadjet, Nekhbet, Amunet, Ra and Nephthys. The tomb of Queen Nefertari, QV66, is one of the largest in the Valley of the Queens. Reeves believes a hidden storeroom lurks behind the western wall of King Tut’s tomb, also known as “KV 62,” and that “the undisturbed burial of the tomb’s … Repairs had been carried out to try to stabilise the serious cracks in the plaster, of with large areas had completely broken away. The tomb itself is primarily focused on the Queen’s life and on her death. Be sure to purchase the separate ticket necessary for Nefertari's Tomb at the ticket window. Little is known of Nefertari, the first chief queen of Ramesses the Great, but her stunning tomb is a testament to the high regard in which her husband held her. The mummified remains of a woman, about age 50, found in tomb QV66. Nefertari's Tomb: The Second Chamber: On Osiris’ “Gatekeepers” Knot-Glyph Underground Fashion; or, Topless Goddesses Queen Nefertari Herself Hathor’s Touch: On Osiris’ “Gatekeepers” In Nefertari's tomb, resurrection glyphs live in comfortable company with death-glyphs. The tomb of Queen Nefertari (QV 66), the favourite Great Royal Wife of King Ramses II (lifetime ca. It was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli (the director of the Egyptian Museum in Turin) in 1904. The tomb features several extracts from the Book of the Dead from chapters 148, 94, 146, 17 and 144 and tells of all the ceremonies and tests taking place from the death of Nefertari up until the end of her journey, depicted on the door of her burial chamber, in which Nefertari is reborn and emerges from the eastern horizon as a sun disc, forever immortalized in victory over the world of darkness. Of the wall full of paintings, the "Queen playing Draughts" is a portrayal of Nefertari playing the game of Senet. She died in the twenty-fourth year of his reign. 1303–1213 BC), was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli (1856–1928) in the Valley of the Queens in 1904. She was the Great Royal Wife, the favorite of pharaoh Ramesses II, who reigned from 1279 to 1213 B.C., and was the builder of grand monuments, vast tombs and monumental temples. But it wasn't until 1986 that the first serious modern work was carried out in order to stabilise the paintings, which was undertaken by the Getty Conservation Institute of America. The conservation was completed in April 1992, but the tomb wasn't reopened to the public until November 1995. A small temple was dedicated to Nefertiti and Hathor by Ramsses II. Not all of the names of the 100 plus children of Ramesses are known, and in many cases their mothers cannot be identified with certainty. Visit the Valley of the Queens first in the morning and save the Valley of the Kings for afternoon. The tomb and its decoration are of an exceptionally high quality, with almost every surface being decorated in vibrant colours. Princess Meritamen, chantress of Amun and priestess of Hathor. You will find it less crowded and have a good chance of visiting the tomb. It is worth noting that in the many occurrences of her titles, there are two hieroglyphic spellings for the word "mistress" or "lady". Their moist bacteria-laden breath causes mould to grow on the surface; the tomb is after all a closed environment. Small missing areas were, however, filled with plaster. They included a large guilded silver plaque, a small plaque of embossed gold, a guilded bronze pendant and four figurines of servants. There was also many pottery fragments and remains of about thirty imgView('nfrtri66_finds_3', 'shabti') (or ushabti) figures, plus the imgView('nfrtri66_finds_4', 'lid') of a shabti box. This spell is supposed to guide Nefertari on how to transform into a ba, which is a bird. Ellen Lloyd - AncientPages.com - In The Valley of the Queens there is a very large and spectacular ancient tomb that belongs to Queen Nefertari (1290–1224 BC). Nefertari may have been very clever, and possibly have been a writer in her lifetime. For Nefertari to become a bird in the afterlife holds a promise of freedom to move around. Picture: PLoS ONE Source:Supplied See imgView('nfrtri66_finds_sarc', 'photo and line drawing')At the foot end, the figure of Isis is located between Nekhbet and Wadjet, which would therefore lead one to assume that at the head end would have been two squatting Anubis figures either side of Nephthys. During the conservation by the Getty Institute, a gold fragment from a bracelet was found in one of the burial chamber annexes. Interpretations suggest that a physical board game of Senet may have possibly been stolen, along with the body and other symbolic images of Nefertari. The tomb was robbed in antiquity, but some items (shabtis etc) were found by Schiaparelli. One mystery remains: where is the main body of the sarcophagus? For what still remains, these wall paintings characterized Nefertari's character. [6] This astronomical ceiling represents the heavens and is painted in dark blue, with a myriad of golden five-pointed stars. Nefertari's origins are unknown, but discoveries in her tomb, which include a cartouche of the Pharaoh Ay (found on a what was either a pommel of a cane or a knob from a chest), suggest she may have been related to rulers of the 18th Dynasty, included Tutankhamun, Nefertiti, Akhenaten and Ay. Nefertari was the first queen of Pharaoh Ramses II. King Ramses II showed great love and appreciation towards Queen Nefertari through a number of paintings, statues, and temples that he constructed for her, in addition to her amusing tomb. The limestone in the Theban area is not of very high quality and it is fractured by earthquakes; it also has bands of flint. He even made the size of her statues, on its facade, to the same scale as his own. The tomb was closed to the public in 1950 because of various problems that threatened the paintings, which are considered to be the best preserved and most eloquent decorations of any Egyptian burial site. Her face was given a lot of attention to emphasize her beauty, especially the shape of her eyes, the blush of her cheeks, and her eyebrows. It is called the Sistine Chapel of Ancient Egypt. Her tomb, QV66, is the largest, most lavishly decorated and spectacular in the Valley of the Queens. This chamber also has four pillars.The tomb's roughly south-north axis is not straight, but turns eastwards at the descent to the lower chambers. Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead, which tells a spell for the Queen, is inscribed on the tomb. It is 520 square meters and it is covered with colorful paintings of Queen Nefertari. All of this means that several layers of plaster were required to be applied to the walls before painting.Because of the many serious problems, which affected its beautifully painted walls, the tomb was closed to the public in the 1950's. The tomb of Nefertari Merytmut, QV66 Living in the XIXth Dynasty (c. 1295-1255 B.C. Restaurants near Tomb of Queen Nefertari: (5.73 km) Al-Sahaby Lane Restaurant (6.00 km) Aisha Restaurant (4.95 km) Sunflower Restaurant West bank (5.97 km) The Lantern Room Restaurant (6.17 km) Sofra Restaurant & Cafe; View all restaurants near Tomb of Queen Nefertari on Tripadvisor She was the most important of his eight wives for at least the following twenty years. She died sometime during the 25th regnal rear of the reign of Ramesses and the reason for her death remains uncertain. These crystals, which can grow extremely large, often to centimetres in size, have forced large areas of plaster from the walls, many of which it was impossible to restore. The exception being the soffit (ceiling) of the entrance doorway to the first chamber, at the bottom of the entry stairs. On June 2nd, 2015 during the lecture about the Valley of the Queens in Thebes I saw this work of art - the Queen Nefertari’s Tomb - a masterpiece in all respects. Inside her tomb, QV66, is the stairway that goes down to the fact that the architect to... Fortunately, much of the Queens 'nfrtri66_finds_5 ', 'wooden djed-pillar ' ) from a bracelet was the... Is pleased to lead you towards the horizon, you are justified by the Great god.! Queen 's burial equipment KV5, the Getty Institute, a gold fragment from a magic brick of! None of these succeeded to the same scale as his own the twenty. Prince Merneptah, his 13th son by another Wife, Isetnofret use a rich palette of colours to finally the... 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