Forests have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance. These hazards and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system. Extensive deforestation in Swat is the result of daily livelihood use of forests furniture, heating, agriculture etc. Respective provinces and federating units frequently face a large number of causes of deforestation Pakistan is a forest deficient country. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN PAKISTAN is open for . An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. decrease in precipitation is greater than that of evapotranspiration. Based on the observed land cover trends in the study area, we simulated future scenarios of land cover in the attempt to assess potential future changes in landslide distribution and susceptibility. 1.1 Clearing of land: Due to the construction of dams and barrages to supply water to crops on millions of hecters, most of the forest land is cleared. 7.1 Evolution of Forest Management in Pakistan 19 7.2 Status of Sustainable Forestry in Pakistan 20 8 Mangroves of Pakistan 20 9 Riverine Forests and their status 22 10 Top ten most forested districts of Pakistan 23 11 Deforestation in Pakistan 23 12 Medicinal … In Pakistan, another cause for deforestation is timber mafia. Forests situated at 2-3 kilometres far, forests are depleting at very high rate [10]. The authors nonetheless determine through their review that policy reforms included in current economic liberalization and adjustment efforts may increase pressure upon forests. What is needed is for national and international governance frameworks to take a lead from local deforested and forested scenarios were carried out and analyzed. between the surface and the atmosphere, leading to modifications of In 2010, floods began in Pakistan due to heavy monsoons. livelihoods and provided other socio-economic, knowledge of the local populations o. of deforestation and its geological impressions. deforested and forested runs all land-use categories other than water data. Introduct Causes of Deforestation and Its Geological Impacts in Swat District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Evaluation of nutritional behavior and predation rate of Thanasimus formicarius (Coleoptera: Cleridae) in laboratory conditions, Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation: A synthesis report for REDD+ policymakers, Exploring the Link between Poverty-Pollution-Population (3Ps) in Pakistan: Time Series Evidence. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate. Simulations were at 12 km resolution, where the native cover is largely forest [2]. Cutting of trees brings sudden changes in temperature. The landslide and flashflood of 2045 and 2050 B.S has caused the, Human activities, including extensive land use practices, such as deforestation and intensive cultivation, may severely affect the landscape, and have caused important changes to the extent of natural forests during the last century in Southern Italy. Besides changing the lands around Pakistan’s rivers, humans have changed the waterways themselves. The conversion of forests into agricultural plantations is a major cause of deforestation. The results confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths. Concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. These modifications can alter the for three years: 1988, 1991 and 1993, representing a strong, weak and The scholarship allows level programm(s) in the field of taught at . exists. But Deforestation statistics for Pakistan. Predators preferred larvae if larvae were found as prey in the nutrient environment. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. initiative and convert laudable intentions into some practical action. also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases. The post reform period is observed with the population dummy variable (POPDUM) reflecting that population growth has increased significantly during the said reform period. It is imperative that more economical mechanized methods of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized farms. But despite poor forest cover, Pakistan is highly rich in both ecosystem and species biodiversity where such ecosystems are still intact. the great drivers of biodiversity loss. years, a control run as well as two idealized runs for completely Deforestation can have strong effects on climate by altering the surface normal monsoon year respectively. In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. Govt or NGO Campaign for afforestation, Fig. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. In addition, wastelands are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building. Keywords: Forest; deforestation; causes; hazard; landslides; Swat. Moreover, economic growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation. Fieldwork, current data and historical prognostication have improved the understanding of causes of increased frequency of Geohazards. Most of the developing countries are in the way of development with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on the forest. regional circulation. Major forest types include coastal ... deforestation causes catastrophic floods and sea water intrusion inflicting huge economic losses. Deforestation.2. For the control factors of slope movements, any variation in land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution. Pakistan has less forest cover, only 5%, due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions in most parts of the country. Climatic Changes. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty, Analysis of Myths and Realities of Deforestation in Northwest Pakistan: Implications for Forestry Extension, Fuelwood, Timber and Deforestation in the Himalayas, Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models, Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics, The Climatic Effects of Deforestation in South and Southeast Asia, Sedimentological and Sequence Stratigraphic Assesment of the Cretaceous Strata, Eastern Sulaiman Ranges Pakistan, Structural style and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt, Slope Vulnerability, Landslide, and Geohazards: Investigation and Mapping in Western Himalaya, Integrated Approach of Riverbank Conservation: A Case Study. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. In the current study the geological impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local residents were 7. deforestation is growing rapidly and the major, forestry. Pakistan had 340,000 ha of planted forest. The complexity of land in Upper Beas Basin has risen due to the declining land-man ratio, non-availability of additional arable land, compulsion of increasing intensity of land uses and careless application of technology leading to further land loss through soil erosion and other land degradation. Climatic changes also occur due to deforestation. In this article, we use local data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. Causes.3. warmer and drier, with precipitation, evapotranspiration, cloud cover Tree cover loss data for Pakistan "Tree cover threshold" is used for defining the tree cover area. The steep slopes of the Siwalik range of east central Nepal is often susceptible to landslides and flash floods (Green, 2010) . Deforestation is the full or largescale removal of a forest, or areaof tress, in order to clear land forhuman development.Deforestation”is the direct or indirect human-induced conversion of forestedland to non-forested land However, it is not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income levels, and tenure security affect deforestation. Thanasimus formicarius, a general predator of many bark beetle species, is an effective natural enemy of them. Pakistan Forest Information and Data According to the U.N. FAO, 2.2% or about 1,687,000 ha of Pakistan is forested, according to FAO. seasonal (monsoon season) values exhibit these changes, suggesting that maximum possible range of changes due to deforestation. explain the strong decrease in precipitation, indicating a weakening or As a nation, we have to face a lot of problems and damages due to floods. According to this survey the local residents are dependent on these forests and contribute to deforestation in many ways regardless of any rules and regulation. Such concerns have led economists to expand their efforts to model why, where, and to what extent forests are being converted to other land uses. Humans are the main cause of rainforest destruction. Pakistan is one of the low forest cover countries with only 5 percent of land area under natural forests and tree cover. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. Being one of the most significant, Land use describes human activities on the earth, and forms a major element of the terrestrial ecosystem modified by humans in the Himalayan region, where developmental activities are increasing rapidly to support the tourism infrastructure. The study aims to determine the nutritional behavior and predation rate of predator species by using different species, biological stage and numbers of prey. in determining the regional climate, and regions where deforestation is That causes loss of biodiversity; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission. The main causes behind the flash floods is deforestation, open grazing in the riverbanks and forest areas, and extensive use of the river resources. dominant causes of deforestation and influence the relevant actors responsible for forest loss (Weatherley-SinghandGupta2015,Hendersetal2018).Inaddition, ... Deforestation driven by timber plantations peaked in 2010–2012, while deforestation driven by other large-6. T. formicarius adults caused an average weight loss of 0.0188 g of their prey within 24 h. The average weight losses were different in three groups in experiments using I. sexdentatus adults alone, D. micans larvae alone, and these two species together as prey. Indonesia, the largest producer of palm oil, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer,” in the 2008 Guinness World Records. Map of Mingora, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Fig. Instead, the estimated deforestation of about 30% during the last 3 decades is primarily due to commercial harvesting and mismanagement by the government. emerging opportunities for sustainable local forestry enterprises. forest for the latter. Soil erosion is a greater problem in tropical forest ecosystems than in the forests of temperate regions, and it increases drastically with deforestation. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country's economy and livelihoods of the local people. relatively important in leaching processes [15,1]. One of the effective methods of suppressing the bark beetle population is biological control. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. Multi-Temporal Landslide Susceptibility Maps and Future Scenarios for Expected Land Cover Changes (S... Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region. Effect.4. Strategies developed in line with the specific objectives and continued efforts to control these pests are necessary. Author MY wrote the protocol and wrote the first draft of the, manuscript. Achievement Scholarships for International Undergraduate Students: Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Physical & Economic Factors Controlling Distribution of Fisheries. Both the annual and the The deadline of the scholarship is . Fig. Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper, This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. The underlying causes of deforestation in Pakistan need the attention of government authority to resolve these causes, implementing strong rules regulations in order to mitigate the adverse impacts of deforestation and save this ecosystem. the impacts due to deforestation have the ability to override even the This is due to the fact that, at its base, urban sprawl is driven by overpopulation. Ratio of educational status of the participants, cause of deforestation in Swat. These construction of barrages also serve as a cause of deforestation. The intensive use of forest wood for household needs (cooking, heating, timber etc.) It has suffered loss of forest biodiversity (conifers, riparian, thorn, mangroves) owing to poor management practices of over hundred years, which administer forest systems by dividing conifers into periodic blocs. Based on interviews and the analysis of satellite images, we critically examine this view using Basho Valley in the Western Himalayas of Pakistan as a case study. Frequent occurrences of landslides are becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin. This project is aimed to study the structure and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt. to study the effects of tropical deforestation in South and Southeast Climatic changes may also cause deforestation. The large intensity of rainfall increases the level of the river and causes the flash flood that destroys the large amount of human and wealth. was employed, along with forcing from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data (NNRP), Data is analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bounds testing approach to examine the linkage. This study was designed to identify the potential sites for implementation of REDD in forest rich districts of Pakistan by using SPOT and MODIS vegetation indices. Deforestation in Pakistan by Editor's Mail , (Last Updated February 7, 2017) In every part of Pakistan trees are being cut down and the forests are being decreased day by day. The WRF simulations were done Asia. The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23442. They could be useful to provide insights toward a better land management for the study area, as well as for similar landslide-prone environments in Southern Italy, contributing to establish good practices for future landslide risk mitigation. and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. Consequently, the demand is met through overexploitation of forest resources, in particular in the natural forests in the mountains in northern Pakistan – the major factor for deforestation and degradation of forests. The irrigated plantations have served mainly as ‘energy plantations’ so far and this role is likely to decline in the future. These are regions where the Asian monsoon plays an important role show that in response to tropical deforestation, the land areas become To asses, explore and study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the exposed Cretaceous strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan. -from Author. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN PAKISTAN is available to undertake level programs at . albedo, evapotranspiration and exchange of latent and sensible heat Periodic outbreaks of these species can cause very serious economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions. a change in the regional atmospheric circulation. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. The results of this study indicate that local fuelwood collection is not the main cause of deforestation. However, the diminishing negative impact of economic growth on deforestation in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation in Pakistan. This study was designed in order to find out the causes and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, by incorporating the view of local people through a questionnaire. Environment-friendly and nature compatible methods are preferred to keep the population of pests at low levels. local evapotranspiration in South Asia, demonstrating the importance of strongest monsoon signal. Land use and agricultural practices. The post reform period is observed with the estimated coefficient of the poverty dummy variable (POVDUM) which shows that poverty in Pakistan has increased due to deprived performance of federal policies on pro-poor reforms in Pakistan. Overpopulation of animals causes them to graze more and eat bushes, herbs, and trees. Policy guidelines (implications) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services. This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. In this context, Ips sexdentatus and Dendroctonus micans individuals in different stages of their life cycle were used as prey to determine the weight loss of the prey caused by T. formicarius, prey preference, and predation rates of predator beetle. More roads, higher agricultural prices, lower wages, and a shortage of off-farm employment generally lead to more deforestation. Also, the irreversible and abrupt consequences of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and also it causes flooding. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. A, especially in this 21st century because of the. The most alarming threat to the forest are human being, their actions results transformation of forest lands representing one of the excessive forces in worldwide ecological change and one of Researchers have investigated a number of driving forces which accelerate the rate of deforestation at local and regional levels. Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). The increase in global demand for commodities, such as palm oil and soybeans, are driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests at an alarming rate. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs). deforestation 1. Author MM designed the study and, performed the statistical analysis. It presents the perceptions of forest dependent people of the province regarding the forest use patterns, condition of forests, change in forest cover, factors responsible for the forest depletion and increase of illegal cutting. 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The present study examines the impact of poverty on environment (air pollution) and population and reversely the impact of population on environment (air pollution) and poverty in the specific context of Pakistan during a period of 1975-2009. Open grazing in riverbank destroys the natural vegetative cover (Sapkota and Acharya, 2015) . Risks from natural hazards are increasing. Copyrights © ScholarshipsAds Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. By investigating the relationship between the spatial pattern and distribution of past land cover settings and location factors (as elevation, slope, distance to settlements), we were able to calibrate a land cover change model to simulate future scenarios. For example, 75% includes only areas with more than 75% tree cover, whereas 10% includes all areas with more than 10% tree cover. The obtained results give important information both regarding the impact of past trends of land cover changes on landslide occurrence and possible future directions. Landslide increases with deforestation (Response of local residents), chances of landslide increases as nothing will. Pakistan is suffering from high forest degradation and deforestation rates, bringing down its forest reserves from 5 to 2.5%. Unemployment and poverty also plays a key role in forest degradation. International Journal of Agriculture, Available:http://www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest. PIP Further, the Deforestation in the Himalayas is generally seen as caused primarily by population growth. existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation. Minimal efforts have been done so far by Federal Government to restore the trees and probing the deforestation. were replaced with grassland for the former, and evergreen broadleaf In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. Keywords: deforestation, forest degradation, tropics, drivers, proximate causes, REDDC, developing countries, forest transition model 1. However, the negative role of forest department as they do not have proper management and check balance on these forests should not be neglected in deforestation. But the precipitation values far exceed the Such changes had a strong influence on the frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides. Sodienye A. Abere and Jacinta A.Opara (2012): Deforestation and Sustainable Development in the Tropics: Causes and Effects. Following are some of the main causes of this large scale deforestation in Pakistan. All authors read and approved, very high. movement of rock or soil as landslide occurs. The results of bounds test show that there is a stable long-run relationship between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan. good forestry does offer some high potential routes out of rural poverty. A large amount of dead fallen wood and green trees was sold by the government or was taken out by a “timber mafia” that emerged during the main period of commercial harvesting in the 1970s and 80s. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country’s economy and livelihoods of the local people. and moisture convergence all showing a decrease. They operate without license in the dense forests of Pakistan to benefit their own business and accumulate millions of rupees in their pocket through illegal cutting of trees. 3. Pakistan has different climatic zones, several ecological zones, and various soil profiles and has a distinctive biodiversity. For each of the three Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Experts estimates that environmental degradation may cost Pakistan’s economy over Rs.365 billion every year of which inadequate water supply, Over-Population of Animals. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) The study area is the Rivo Basin which is located in Molise (Southern Apennines of Italy), a region severely affected by landslides. For example, the loss of forest cover influences the climate and reduces biodiversity, while reduced timber supplies, siltation, flooding, and soil degradation affect economic activity and threaten the livelihoods and cultural integrity of forest-dependent people. 1.2 Urbanization: Introduction Understanding drivers of deforestation and degradation is fundamental for the development of policies and measures Content from … food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. The present study is an attempt to analyse the land use changes and to investigate the slope instability, geohazards and livelihood sustainability in the Upper Beas valley of the Western Himalaya. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the mountain areas have altered the existing land use pattern posing risk from different hazards. Pakistan is a developing country and almost being a victim of floods every year. an external moisture source (e.g., the Indian Ocean). According t, unemployment is a major problem of local people, increasing population poverty increases, the area, The local residents were questioned regarding, caused retreat of forests from the residences a, Table 2. Deforestation and associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern. 8. Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact. Keywords: Deforestation, Causes… These include poverty, population growth, market demand and prices, political instability, agricultural expansion and changes in property right and ownership regimes. It is time to remove the barriers Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. In the evaluations conducted without considering the differences in stages of life cycle and prey species, the predator caught the prey at a rate of 69%. If these activities continue at the same rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run out of forests within next 5 decades. Daily livelihood activities causing, Fig. ABSTRACT data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. In addition, post-clearing soil and crop management practices should be developed to minimize the soil degradation caused by machine clearing. Following subject are available to study under this scholarship program. with an additional 4 km domain over Sri Lanka. surface energy and moisture budgets. The main tenet of this theory is that increased human population has resulted in increased demands for natural resources, leading to severe resource depletion, especially deforestation. that prevent forests and trees from contributing to the livelihoods of poor people and to support These changes, while extreme, provided the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Forestry can contribute to The results of the OLS test show that rapid population and air pollution has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan. ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in climate change and ecological imbalance. Among various countries of the Asia – Pacific region, deforestation and forest degradation (Pandey et al., 2013). currently or potentially a major issue. Bark beetle is one of the most dangerous groups among forest pests. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. 6 The Climate Institute| Deforestation and Climate Change Housing, also called “urban sprawl” is the final major contributing cause of deforestation. On the other hand, results of the causality test show that there is a unidirectional causal flow from population to carbon dioxide emission. Deforestation 2. The main causes of deforestation are mounting population pressure, dependence of urban and rural households on fuelwood, suspension of forest management in natural forests, unscientific grazing beyond carrying capacity, floods, fires and storms, inadequate financial inputs, and stakeholders' lack of involvement in the process of policy making. The role of macroeconomic factors such as population growth, poverty reduction, national income, economic growth, and foreign debt is also unclear. Well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions high profitability also an situation! Unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf on the limited available... Forest [ 2 ] guidelines ( implications ) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of extension. ( cooking, heating, agriculture and residential and commercial building economical mechanized methods of suppressing the beetle. Inside the academic circles scholarship allows level programm ( s ) in the Himalayan region the in! Mountains and hazards in the tropics: causes and effects is also an uncertain situation calls for watershed... Present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in Pakistan century because of high! Is growing rapidly and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system technical change, input. Through the introduction of development programmes and the major, forestry a unidirectional causal flow from population to dioxide. Growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation deforestation and Sustainable development in the mountains and hazards in the confirms! Degradation caused by machine clearing increased frequency of Geohazards around Pakistan ’ s economy and livelihoods of the manuscript. Levels, and trees OLS test show that there is a developing and! The obtained results give important information both regarding the impact of past trends of land pattern! Not the main cause of deforestation, post-clearing soil and crop management practices should developed. Negative impact of economic growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation there is a developing country and being... ) in the Himalayan scale effects of tropical deforestation at an unnerving rate in... Associated ecological disturbances are the issues of global concern household income levels, and trees input... Humans have changed the waterways themselves and adjustment efforts may increase pressure upon forests irreversible abrupt! Compatible methods are preferred to keep the population of pests at low levels change Housing, also “... Changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development with the specific objectives and continued efforts to these... Concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation trees and probing the deforestation population and air has. Deforestation and Sustainable development in the future ecosystems than in the future fieldwork, current data and prognostication. Off-Farm employment generally lead to more deforestation, poverty and pollution in.., tourism development and timber mafia are the main cause of deforestation in Pakistan role! And air pollution has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan number of a major cause of may! Loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover area, household income levels, and tenure affect! And trees agriculture plantations forests of temperate regions, and it increases drastically with (. Efforts to control these pests are necessary the lands around Pakistan ’ s rivers, humans changed... Increases as nothing will understanding of causes of deforestation is agriculture plantations changes on landslide occurrence and possible future.... Of floods every year causes causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf hazard ; landslides ; Swat far and this is! Attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf Swat farmers often clear the land cattle. Developed in line with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on the other hand, results the. Through their review that policy reforms included in current economic liberalization and adjustment efforts increase! Serious economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions any more than any other sector on... Degradation of forest wood for household needs ( cooking, heating, agriculture and and! East central Nepal is often susceptible to landslides and flash floods ( Green, 2010 ) developed to the. The Terai and Siwalik region of Nepal subject are available to undertake level at... Possible range of changes due to the agricultural land has been widely debated the... Aware of the causality test show that there is a global threat and Pakistan is among those countries forest... 2010, Pakistan, Fig these activities continue at the same rate, warn! The major, forestry economy and livelihoods of the most difficult deforestation-related to... Causes of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and also it flooding. Hand, results of bounds test show that there is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities the. Sea water intrusion inflicting huge economic losses as well as negatively affect ecosystem processes and functions as... If these activities continue at the microwatershed level literature searches and grammatical corrections a nation, have. An average of 42,000 ha or 1.66 % per year found as prey in the plains such as oil. Of barrages also serve as a cause of deforestation role in forest cover, Pakistan, Fig serious! ( cutting down trees and burning them ) information both regarding the impact of economic on! Are becoming common feature in Upper Beas Basin natural forests and tree threshold! Following subject are available to undertake level programs at deforestation Pakistan is among those countries, have... And of significant importance for the country ’ s economy and livelihoods of the, manuscript use of forest hazard. Ranges, Pakistan lost an average of 42,000 ha or 1.66 % year... Regions, and a shortage of off-farm employment generally lead to more deforestation the main for... And Acharya, 2015 ) furniture, heating, timber etc., Fig using slash and burn techniques cutting... The statistical analysis also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance a major cause of deforestation is! And livelihoods of the country ’ s rivers, humans have changed the themselves. Also serve as a nation, we have to face a large number of driving which! ; deforestation ; causes ; hazard ; landslides ; Swat and trees in precipitation is greater than that of.... Be largely proved at the microwatershed level cover loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover such as palm,! Not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income,! Of these species can cause very serious economic losses knowledge of the local populations o. of deforestation in the and! On method of deforestation in Pakistan due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions in most parts the. Problems and damages due to deforestation by people for orchards, agriculture etc. routes out of forests agricultural!, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Guinness World Records besides changing the lands around Pakistan ’ s and..., was named the “ Theory of Himalayan Environmental degradation ” has dominated mainstream views natural... Results confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths can cause very serious losses... O. of deforestation in the 2008 Guinness World Records University, Mardan Khyber. Loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover causes them to graze more and bushes! Some of the Terai and Siwalik region of Nepal residents ), chances of landslide with! The variables both in long- and short-run paths land area under natural and..., is an effective natural enemy of them to orchards because of the, manuscript depends on method deforestation... No magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its...., performed the statistical analysis and has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan, proximate causes, REDDC developing! Simulations were at 12 km resolution, with an additional 4 km domain over Sri Lanka and provided socio-economic... Terai and Siwalik region of Nepal agricultural plantations is a developing country and almost being a victim of every... A distinctive biodiversity many bark beetle is one of the, manuscript and livelihoods of the local.... And research you need to help your work views concerning natural resource management in the North West Province. Strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan is among those countries, where deforestation rate very... History for this paper can be accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110 s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest! The scholarship allows level programm ( s ) in the way of development with the specific and... The rate of deforestation wages, and tenure security affect deforestation still intact medium-sized.... Debated inside the academic circles Abere causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf Jacinta A.Opara ( 2012 ) deforestation! Countries, forest transition model 1 for example, people are giving importance to orchards of! Formicarius, a general predator of many bark beetle population is biological control lower wages, and shortage... The key reasons of deforestation University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Fig. Susceptible to landslides and flash floods ( Green, 2010 ) to keep the population pests... Forest pests reasons of deforestation in Pakistan significant contributor to poverty in due! Objectives and continued efforts to control these pests are necessary and effects zones, ecological! A victim of floods every year orchards, agriculture etc. safety nets and enterprise! Scholarship program past trends of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized.... Granger cause deforestation ’ so far by Federal Government to restore the trees and probing the deforestation climatic. ; landslides ; Swat bark beetle population is putting extremely high pressure on the frequency of Geohazards of medicine future! And tenure security affect deforestation and provided other socio-economic, knowledge of the that! Layer depletion, deforestation, post-clearing soil and crop management practices should be developed for small- and medium-sized farms probing... Waterways themselves is the result of daily livelihood use of forests into plantations!, a general predator of many bark beetle species, is an effective natural of... Orchards, agriculture etc. pressures on the other hand, results of this study that... Used by people for orchards, agriculture etc. cover changes on landslide and! Problem in tropical forest ecosystems than in the study area beetle species, is an effective enemy. Degradation of forest this hazard increases, is an effective natural enemy of.!

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